Color theory

Color Theory by Alexander Cherkov, from the book Introduction to the World of Art "Sculpture, painting, drawing and more"

The rainbow of colors

red, orange, yellow, green, blue, blue, purple.

This in itself is already beautiful, optimistic and happy. And you do not need to know anything about the theory of color, to really enjoy the process of painting in these colors on a white surface, as children do. But for some reason, in the process of mixing the colors, the painting begins to turn into a dirty puddle. What's going on?

Color theory

When you begin to understand the secrets of color, you discover many surprises, in which it makes no sense:

1. red and- purple Farthest apart in the spectrum, in our perception they are close enough to each other to see them as neighbors, allowing the spectrum to be closed in a circle, known as the "color wheel".

2. In the resulting circuit, blue Could not find a mate and left the dance.

3. We see that by mixing red and- yellow We accept orangeyellow and- blue greenred and- blue purple. But a mixture of orange and- green Does not becomeyellowgreen and- purple Does not become blue, And purple and- orange Does not become red.

Color theory

4. In this way, we were left with only three basic colors out of the seven colors of the rainbow: redyellow and- blue. They are not exactly redyellow and- blue, As for example in Pete Mondrian's painting, but it is precisely these "cold" shades of the three primary colors that form the basis for the creation (as a result of mixing) of the entire color spectrum visible to the human eye. And it is precisely these colors that form the basis of modern digital printing.

Color theory
Piet Mondrian, 1930, "Composition with Red Blue and Yellow", oil on canvas

5. The colors obtained by mixing three primary colors - orange, green and-purple, Institutes Sub-colors. By mixing sub-colors and base color, six additional colors are obtained, called Tertiary colors: Red-orange, red-purple, yellow-green, yellow-orange, blue-green and blue-purple.

Color theory
Color theory

6. The following surprise awaits us when we mix the three main colors: color is obtained black. In fact, it is not quite the same deep hue of color black Achromatic, which is obtained by burning wood to produce charcoal for drawing. However, he called Kazimir Malevich's painting, which was painted without the use of black, "the black square".

black color
Kazimir Malevich, 1915, "Black Square", oil on canvas
Thousands magnification of part of the image center

7. The following diagram shows that in order to achieve a black color, two properly selected colors will suffice. Surprisingly in each pair the color obtained is darker than all the containing colors, and is not the average of the dark shades. Two such colors, forming as a "black color" duo, are called complementary colors.

For what do you need to know this?

"Yes" and "No" do not say, "black" and "white" do not say! Remember the famous childhood game? Absolute black color and absolute white color, as we have already mentioned, in our relative world do not exist. These colors always have an additional hue: warm (reddish or yellowish) or cold (bluish).

Color theory
Complementary colors create black

8. If we cross an imaginary line in the color wheel, we get the arc The warm shades (Red, orange and yellow), and the rainbow The cold shades (Blue, purple, and green).
Color temperature, hot or cold, indicates the intensity of the hue and is essential for creating the light in the painting and expressing the artist's mood. 

Color theory

9. Scale shades in different dark grades of one color machine Monochromaticity. Mono = one, chrome = color. The meaning of the term Achromaticity It is colorless and refers to white, black and shades of gray, which are created by mixing white and black.

Color theory

Color theory

XNUMXD in painting

Since one of the tasks of the artist is often to create an effect of volume or depth (illusions of three-dimensional space), in the process of painting it is necessary to know how to create light and shadow in color. Here, the knowledge about complementary colors will be useful in order to mutually darken each other and decrease each other's color brightness, since this is what happens with color when the lighting decreases in the shade.

So in the colored balls with the help of magnification you can see shades of purple in the shade of the yellow ball, shades of red in the shade of the green ball and shades of green in the shade of the red ball. Attempts to achieve a shade with an achromatic black color will lead to "contamination" of the color palette and loss of emotional expression of the painting.

Perspective in painting

It should be noted that when creating perspective Aerial in color, intensity decreases inversely with increasing lighting, which occurs as it moves away in open spaces. Therefore, in addition to white paint, a little complementary paint should be added. Besides, the color of distant areas is influenced by the color of the air, which we determine according to the color of the sky, depending on the time of day, the season, and also the weather conditions. And of course, the artist's mood. And maybe out of his desire?

Color theory

Colors - Explanation, meanings and tips:

More posts about painting and color theory:

Tips for working with a nude model

Tips for working with a nude model

Here are tips for working with a nude model, an excellent practice for knowing the human anatomy and understanding the proportions, in order to achieve full life in the image of the human body.

Exercises in color theory

Exercises in color theory

Here is a color exercise and a still life painting exercise with an instructional video. In addition, you are offered a way to examine your perception of color that may be wrong.

Painting studies at the Cherkov Studio in Givatayim - you are welcome to join:

Art workshops in a personal track - Painting, sculpture and drawing studies under the guidance of Alexander Cherkov for adults and young people, beginners and advanced. The studies are in a group setting with guidance and personal treatment for each participant.

Art workshops for children - Painting, sculpture and drawing studies under the guidance of Sophie Cherkov for children of primary school age, beginners and advanced. The studies in small groups with guidance and personal treatment for each participant.

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